GLOSSARY

 

This glossary shows the diacritical (accent) marks to be used with the non-English words in this website, to guide the reader on their correct pronunciation. These are words in the Kodava language, except for a few that are in Kannada or Tulu. The key to the transliteration shows an English word whose pronunciation is closest to that indicated by the diacritical mark.

 

In order not to clutter the text, the transliterated words with diacritical marks are given only in the glossary.

 

KEY TO THE TRANSLITERATION

 

Vowels

 

 

 

Pronounced approximately  as in underlined portion of English word

Consonants

Pronounced approximately  as in underlined portion of English word

 

a

 

but

 k

 

cut

 

ā

 

car

 

g

 

get

 

ë/ ï / ü

 

could’nt 

 

ch

 

chin

 

 

ëˉ/ ï ˉ/ ǖ

 

(elongated form of the sound)

 

 

j

 

jet

 

i

 

 

pin

 

t

 

met

 

u

 

put

 

 

down

 

 

ū

 

rude

 

th

 

thank

 

ă / ĕ

 

 

bird

 

d

 

then

 

ăˉ / ĕˉ

 

 

earth

 

p

 

pin

 

e

 

 

merry

 

b

 

bat

 

ē

 

fate

y

 

 

yard

 

é

 

at once

 

r

 

rank

 

éˉ

 

cat

 

l

 

let

 

o

 

obedience

 

v

 

 very

 

ō

 

old

 

s

 

sit

 

ò

 

pot

h

 

 

hat

 

òˉ

 

 saw

 

l

 

(as in Nala)

Diphthongs

ai

 

 

 

like

Nasals

n (needs a dot on top)

 

 

 sing

 

ou

 

how

 

 

ñ

 

bench

Nasal vowel

 

 

hundred

 

 

(as in Krishna)

 

 

 

 

n

 

net

 

 

 

 

m

 

met

 

 

 

 

aat/āt

dance

āchāri

carpenter

ādă

master

ādi guru/kāraṇă

the very first (earliest known) ancestor of the okka

aḍil mané

house at a lower level

aimara

bench seat consisting of a wooden plank laid on top of a low mud parapet between pillars

ainmané

ancestral home

ajjă

grandfather – respectful and affectionate suffix attached to the name of a male ancestor or any old man

Ajjappă

Respectful form of address for the kāraṇavaº

āka nāti paṇi

transplanting paddy seedlings from the nursery

āka/āka thevaº

long plot in paddy fields where a wide stretch along its length is left unplanted for running races

akki  ïḍuvă 

ritual sprinkling of rice

āl katté

platform at the base of a peepal (ficus religiosa) tree

alankāra pūjé

worship, where the image of the deity is decorated in a prescribed way

ālé pòré

out-house built close to the ainmané for additional living space

āl rūpa

Small, crude image embossed on metal or carved in wood, representing a dead person

aliya kattu

law of inheritance where a man’s property is inherited by his sister’s son (in Kannaḍa)

ambala

roofed structure on a raised platform where thakkas (headmen) and villagers met and settled disputes

anganvāḍi

place where young children are taken care of during the day

anji kūt mūrthiya

group of five spirit-deities

anna dāna

charity feeding (in Kannaḍa)

anuvāda

words spoken by the one possessed by an ancestor

appa kajjāya

a sweet dish (made of rice flour and jaggery)

arali katte

platform at the base of a peepal (ficus religiosa) tree (in Kannaḍa)

aramané

palace

ārathi

waving a lamp around a person/image being honoured/glorified

aré bhāshé

language spoken by the Gouḍas of Koḍagu – a mixture of Thulu, Halegannaḍa (old form of Kannaḍa) and Koḍava thakk

aré boḍi

half-shot (lit.), where the hunted animal is hit, but not mortally

ārōḍa/ārvāḍ

the main/primary ainmané

aruva

a friendly okka which performs the mutually agreed role of assisting in rituals and ceremonies

atha kott

cow-shed

athi-pathi

customary offer of meal to villagers during a ceremony or festival

avalakki

beaten/flattened rice

āyudha pūjé

worship of arms/weapons

bakka pòré

guard’s look-out hut

balthă

right/to the right

Balya Achanḍa

belonging to Balya Acha

balya mané

large house where all the members of the okka lived together

bāl kathi

long double-edged sword

bālé paṇṇ

banana fruit

bālé putt

dish made of rice and ripe bananas, steamed in banana leaves

bālō pāt

traditional folksong in the Koḍava language

bana

forest

bāṇé

forest land for grazing

baṇṇa

caste of immigrants from Kerala who perform théré

bāraṇi

ritual offering of food to ancestors or deities

barchi

spear

barké chékké

sweet jack-fruit with firm texture

basavă

sacred bull - God Shiva’s mount

batt thūkuvă

hanging up their share of the meat from a hunt

batté pāt

song for the way (folk-song)

battiyath okka

okka that has rights and responsibilities related to a temple or shrine

beejuva kall

grinding stone used for powdering grains such as rice

beeră

spirit of a warrior hero

beerāli 

cloth of silk woven with gold

beerăng koḍpă

food offerings to the spirit of a warrior hero

bēl

paddy field

bēti

bōti, post (in Kannaḍa)

bhāga

branch of an okka, with a separate ainmané

bhanḍāra

monetary offerings to a temple or deity

bhanḍāra potti

box in which money offered to a temple or deity is kept

bhanḍāra thakka

okka responsible for safe-keeping of the bhanḍāra

bhasma kutt

a hanging carved wooden container for bhasma (sacred ash)

bhatti

a measure for harvested paddy equal to 80 volumetric sērs - the expected yield from about 3 acres of rice fields

bhukthi

food offerings to a deity

bhukthi koḍpă

make food offerings to a deity

bhūmi

land, generally wetland for growing rice

bill kĕttuvă

encircling the area with men armed with bows and arrows

bindigé

vessel used to draw water from a well

Bōḍ nammé

festival in a temple where participants wear guises and sing songs, sometimes vulgar

Bolak nammé

festival of lights held in the village temple

bòté Chounḍi

goddess Chounḍi as a huntress

bòtékāră

hunter

bott

circular mark applied on the forehead (with crimson powder etc.)

chappalé putt

sweet dish, steamed in leaves of the nārangi/naru tree

chappara

awning/canopy/temporary structure with a roof, erected in front of a house for a festive occasion

chappé

champak/sampige tree (Michelia champaca)

chatha nāl nōtuvă 

consulting the astrologer to remove the bad influence of the spirit-deity Kuliya, who is believed to have caused death

chathaingaḍa

of those who are dead

chathaingala kotti pāḍuvă

singing ballads of the dead, to the beat of drums 

chathakō chāvlé

lives on even after his death

chathra

choultry/inn for lodging travellers and pilgrims

chāvaḍikāra

those who served in the court of the Koḍagu Rājās as guards etc.

chāvu pāt

funeral song

cheeni vālaga

musical band with pipes

cheep anchi/ōḍ

small, humped or rounded tiles

chékké

Jack-fruit

chékké curry/pāra

curry/pickle made from raw Jack-fruit

chélé

sash worn with the traditional attire of a Koḍava man

chepp

chest to keep valuables

chepp pāni

chest, shaped like a pāni (cylindrical measuring vessel), to keep valuables

cheriyă

small

chithāl

peepal tree (Ficus religiosa)

chout pujé    

worship on the first Tuesday of the month

chūlé

dancing girl/prostitute

dāri

road/path (in Kannaḍa)

dēsha thakka

okka that has the hereditary headmanship role of a dēsha (a region which is a group of nāḍs)

déva thakka

okka that has the hereditary headmanship role in a temple/shrine

déva kaaḍ /déva kāḍ/

dévaḍa kaaḍ

sacred forest/forest belonging to a deity

déva/dévathé

god/deity

devara kathi

sword of the god/deity (in Kannaḍa)

dēvaru

god/deity (in Kannaḍa)

devvagalige eḍe/ koḍuvudu

offering to spirit-deities (in Kannaḍa)

diwan

chief officer of the State

dōl

large drum, beaten during temple festivals

dōl pāt

song sung to the beat of the dōl

dosha

fault or error (in social practice)

duḍi

Koḍava drum

dūtha

representative/messenger (in Kannaḍa)

éḍé

ritual offering of food and liquor to ancestors or deities during special occasions

ĕḍthă

left/to the left

ëëḍ

folk-dance rehearsals held during the week before Puthari   

ëëḍ ĕḍpă

holding ëëḍ dances

ëëḍ mand

village green where ëëḍ dances (practice for Puthari dances) are held

ëëti

lance/spear

eth

ox

eth pōr/eth pōrāt

caravan of pack-oxen loaded with rice (taken to shrines/temples as votive offerings)  

gadde

paddy field (in Kannaḍa)

ganḍ maṇṇ

soil of the brave (lit., masculine soil)

garaḍi

gymnastics

géjjé thanḍ

ceremonial staff of ebony adorned with silver bells

gōri

tomb

gūḍ

niche

gūḍ potti

box fitted in a niche in the wall

guḍāṇa

large copper vessel to store and heat water

guḍi

shrine/altar

gunḍa

temporary altar for Hari Sēvē, sculpted with mud (in Kannaḍa)

guru kāraṇă

founder or earliest known ancestor of an okka, who is addressed as a guru (revered preceptor/teacher)

guruk kūtuvă

symbolically uniting the spirit of the recently dead with the spirits of ancestors (gurus) who had died earlier

guruk oppïchiḍuvă

ceremony where an āl rūpa is offered to the care of the kāraṇavaº

haṇṇu kāyi

traditional offering of bananas and coconuts in temples (in Kannaḍa)

hase bareyuvudu

 

ritual drawing of pictures on a wall of the ainmané, by men, during a Gouḍa wedding (in Kannaḍa) 

hōma

oblations to the gods offered into the consecrated fire

huli vēsha

guise of a tiger (in Kannaḍa)

icha maraṇa

the ability to die when one wishes it (in Kannaḍa) 

illathă

without

irmb

iron

ishta dévă

tutelary god or deity of one’s choice

jāgir

land free of assessment, granted by Rājās for extraordinary services

jamā bandi

settlement of assessments on land

jamma

land tenure for ancestral land that is hereditary for the okka and is

taxed at half the normal rate

jāthi

caste

jōḍ/jōḍi

a pair

jōḍeth

pair of oxen

jōgi kali

dance/act in the guise of/dressed as a religious mendicant

kāchambuli

thickened juice of a sour fruit that is used in curries

kad

new ears of paddy

kaaḍ/kāḍ

forest  

kad ĕḍpă

ceremonious cutting of new ears of paddy and bringing it home

kāḍ kūḍith

overgrown with wild plants

kaḍanga

defensive trench

kaḍathalé

sacred ritual sword, symbol of a deity

kaḍāya

large cooking vessel

kaḍé

part of an okka - descendants of one member of the okka

kaḍi kāraṇă

ancestor who is a hero

kaḍike

thuliya - large cane/wicker cylinder to store grain (in Thulu)

kai thiri thōk

small match-lock gun loaded with gun-powder and lit with wicks

(note: kai signifies ‘small’)  

kail polüd

festival venerating agricultural implements and weapons

kaimaḍa

ancestral shrine near the ainmané

kakkĕtt

stone wall

kala maḍakuvă

end of the festival, when accounts are taken

kaliya beppă/kaliyang koḍpă

offering pig and chicken to the Kāraṇă in the kaimaḍa, done by men      

kall

stone

kall bōti

stone post

kall guḍi

stone shrine

kallōṇi

stone-paved lane

kala

threshing yard

kali

dance/act dressed as/in the guise of 

kamb aimara

sacred aimara touching the kanni kamba

kani mini kòmbaré

birthing room

kaṇi pūjé

worship of goddess Kāvēri in individual homes  

kaṇiyă

astrologer

kanji

gruel made of rice

kanni aimara

sacred aimara

kanni kamba

pillar sacred to the memory of the Kāraṇavaº

kanni kòmbaré/ kanni mūlé kòmbaré

room in the south-west corner of the ainmané, sacred to ancestors

kanni mūlé

south-west (sacred) corner

kāpala ganté

bell worn by a Kāpala around his waist when he dances for Puthari

kāraṇă /kāraṇavaº

founder or earliest known ancestor of an okka

kāraṇa sthāna/nélé

spot where the spirit of the Kāraṇa was established

kāraṇa théré

performance ritual in honour of the Kāraṇa

kāraṇachi

female ancestor

kāraṇang ïḍuva/koḍpă

ritual offerings to ancestors

kāraṇanige koḍuvudu

ritual offerings to ancestors (in Kannaḍa)

kāraṇavanḍa potti

kāraṇava’s box

karik muripă

day preceding the wedding day when villagers gather to help with the wedding preparations (lit., cutting vegetables and meat for the feast)

karimaṇi

chain of black beads 

kāryakāră

senior officer in the king’s service/general in the army  

kāt

to show

kātakāyi

rebellion

kathi

knife/sword

kāti

bison

kāvukāra

okka  with the hereditary role of officiating as priests during the temple festival

kayyālé

verandah

këëda

lower

këëda mané

house at a lower level (literally or figuratively)

kĕkola

burial ground

kéré

tank

kēri

hamlet

kĕtt būvă

announcement of restrictions to be followed in the village, for a specified period before the village temple festival

kĕttnă

built by

koḍil mané

house at the upper level (literally or figuratively)

koḍiyathă

the upper one

koḍpă

to give/offer

kokkéthāthi

chain with a crescent-shaped pendant set with stones

kōl

traditional folk-dance by men holding canes, performed in the mand during Puthari 

kōl mand

village/nāḍ green where kōl dances are held

kòla

performance ritual in honour of deities

kōli

a kind of tree (Helicteres isora); chicken

kōli kuyyuvudu

to cut a chicken as offering to a deity (in Kannaḍa)

komb

horn of an animal; musical instrument shaped like a horn

komb kott vālaga

musical band with horns, pipes and drums

kòmbaré

room

kommé

large cane basket shaped like a pot, to store grain

konḍāta

privilege

koppa

hamlet or house in a hamlet

koppada mane

house in a hamlet (in Kannaḍa)

koravukāră

one who has the responsibility

kōta

shrine

kott

shed

koundi

quilt placed on the back of pack-oxen

kōyimé

customary right/honour related to a temple or a shrine

kuḍi beeră

spirit of a hero of the okka

kuḍiké

mud/clay pot

kudré

dance at temple festival where a horse-shaped cane frame is fixed around the dancer’s body  

kula

community/lineage/clan

kula devaru/devathe

deity of a clan or community (in Kannaḍa)

kulik nippă/nindath/nippăd

to observe severe restrictions for a specified period while in mourning

kulik nippavu

close relatives of a dead person who observe severe restrictions for a specified period while in mourning

kūliyak koḍpă

offering to spirits

Kuliyang koḍpă

offerings to Kuliya

kund

hill

kunḍiké

sacred pond in Thala Kāvēri where the river Kāvēri originates

kundl Ayyappa

Ayyappa on the hill

kūpadi

food packed in banana leaves – for a journey

kupya

wrap-around tunic, part of the traditional attire of a Koḍava man

kupya-chélé

wrap-around tunic and sash, traditional attire of a Koḍava man

kuri

sacred ash, sandalwood paste etc. applied on the fore-head

kuri kutt

bhasma kutt, carved wooden container for sacred ash

kuth bolcha

brass pedestal lamp

kuthi

hollow bamboo container in which new ears of corn are placed and ceremoniously brought to the house during Puthari

kuthi

members of an okka, or of a branch of the okka; the foundation of a house; stump (lit.)

kuthi nāsha

extinction of an okka

kuthik nippă/nindăth/ nindiyă

okka paraje, custom where a man who marries a girl from an okka facing extinction takes the mané péda of the girl’s okka

kutt

piece of wood

kuttuva kott

shed where rice is ponuded

kūvalé putt

sweet dish made of rice flour and Jack-fruit, steamed in kūvale leaves

kuyya

rice cooked at the temple/shrine premises and offered to devotees during a festival

lakkaḍi kòté

wooden fort

lipi

script

mad

platform around a tree in the village green

māda

ceremony that ends ritual mouning for a dead person

maḍak mané

L-shaped house (lit., folded)

makka parajé

custom where the children of a man who marries a girl from an okka facing extinction carry the mané péda of the girl’s okka 

malé kāḍ

forest on a hill

malé thiriké

shrine on top of a hill

malla illu

large house (in Thulu)

mambathāya

granary with mud walls (maṇṇ pathāya)

mambolcha

mud lamp, lit with wicks dipped in oil (maṇṇ bolcha)

mand

village green

mand kūḍuvă

villagers getting together in the village green

mané

house

mané déva/dévathé

deity of the okka

mané ormé

get-together of members of the okka

mané pāt

song relating the history of the okka

mané péda

name of the okka

manék kūtuvă

ceremony to celebrate bringing the spirit of a dead person home

manékāra

members of the okka

mangala pāt

wedding song

māngé mara

mango tree

māni

dry land

maṇṇ

soil, mud

maṇṇ mané thāngnavaº

the one who built the original mud house (ainmané) as a shelter

maṇṇk nindăth/nindiyă

settled in the land belonging to an extinct okka

maṇṇk thāngnavaº

the one who settled in the land and built the house

manthra

magical incantation

manthravādi

sorcerer

māplé

Muslim traders from Malabar

māta

black magic spell

māthu malla

a man who talks a lot (in Kannaḍa)

māvanḍa mōvaº

cross-cousin

meedi

daily or periodic ritual offering of food to ancestors

meedi beppă

keeping meedi as offering for ancestors

meedi kòmbaré

room where meedi is kept for ancestors

meedi neer beppă

kāraṇang koḍpă, ritual offering to ancestors 

mēk/mēké

higher

mēk/mēké mané

house at a higher level

mēlēri

heap of embers on which the person possessed by a deity walks or falls

mòga

mask of a deity, used in ritual performances

mōli

old man/elderly man/master

mōlira

belonging to the moli

mòtté

slope/hill

mūḍé

bundle shaped like an anthill

muḍi

tall head-dress worn by one possessed by a deity

muḍipu

cloth bundle in which money offered to God Venkataramaṇa is kept

mukkāli

low three-legged wooden stool

mukkāti

one who swings lamps in temples during rituals

mūla déva kāḍ

sacred grove where the deity/god was first established

mūla purusha

Kāraṇa, founder or earliest known ancestor of an okka

mūla sthāna

original place where a deity was established

mummaḍakanḍōṇi

lane with three bends 

mund

sunken inner courtyard of a house, open to the sky 

mund mané

ainmané  with a mund

munn

in front

muri keethith

tearing a piece of cloth in two, to symbolise a parting that is irreparable (like the torn pieces that can never be made one again)

mūrtha

muhurtha,  important ritual during the wedding when the bride/groom is blessed

mūrthis

images of gods/sprit-deities

muruva

jingling bells

nāḍ

a group of villages (an administrative unit)

nāḍ thakka

okka that has the headmanship role of a nāḍ, a group of villages

nāḍé kākuvă

story-telling during Puthari

naḍu

middle

Nāga/Nātha

snake deity

nammé

festival

nārangi/naru

a small variety of spice tree, like the cinnamon tree

nari

tiger

nari mangala

ceremony honouring the killer of a tiger

neer

water

neer bali/beli

offering pigs, chicken etc., to ancestors or spirit-deities

neerālé

room where water was stored

nélé

stone, or platform with a stone embedded in it, symbolizing the spirit of the first ancestor or of a spirit-deity who is established there

nēlé

two pairs of wooden rods hung from the ceiling, with aligned holes at the bottom of the rods through which two long poles are passed, for storing things such as guns, koundis etc., at a height

nellakki/nellakki bāḍé/ nellakki naḍu bāḍé

central hall in an ainmané

nĕra paṇṇ

wild purple berry

néré

ears of the new paddy crop, brought ceremoniously during Puthari

nérké

bamboo slats

nirūpa

document with a king’s command, such as a land grant

oḍi kathi

war knife with a broad blade

okka  

patrilineal clan

okka parajé

custom where a man who marries a girl from an okka facing extinction takes the mané péda of the girl’s okka   

okkaḍa ōṇi

lane used by the members of the okka to go to the ainmané

okkak déva

deity for the okka

òlé

hearth

ōli koḍé

umbrella made of palm leaves

ondané

the first, foremost

ondané kula

the first okka that settled in the village

ōṇi

lane

ōta 

running race

òté/vòté

reed

othé pòré

a one-winged house

othormé

get-together of all the members of an okka

otti

flat unleavened bread made of cooked rice and rice flour

paat/pāt

song

pachaḍak bechiyă

informal spousal relationship between a man and a woman

pachaḍak nindiyă

custom of makka parajé that helped to preserve the name of an okka facing extinction

padaka

medal

paisāri

waste land that is Government property

pāla

log or tree trunk that serves as a foot-bridge over a stream

palachi

Jack-fruit tree

paleya

old

pāleyagāră

local chieftain

palli

mosque

pancha lōha

alloy of five metals – copper, brass, tin, lead and iron (in Kannaḍa)

pāni

flat-bottomed cylindrical volumetric measure for grains, equal to two sērs

paramb

meadow, open grassland

pāré kall

large stone slab

pārpathyagāră

revenue officer

Pāshāṇa Murthik koḍpă

offerings to Pāshāṇa Murthi

pāt

song/folk-song

pathalōdi

the ten days following Kāvēri Sankramaṇa; also used to denote the tenth day of this period

pathāya

large wooden structure for storing harvested paddy

pāthi ōḍ

small humped or rounded tiles, cheep ōḍ

pāthūra kōl

white cane (used for the Puthari kol dance)

patta

a dignity or office granted by the king

pattă

brahmin 

pattada rāṇi

principal queen, who has the right to the throne (in Kannaḍa)

patté

title deed for land

pattédāră

head-man of an okka in whose name the patté (title deed) for the jamma land of the okka is recorded

pāyasa

a sweet dish made with milk and rice

peeché kathi

traditional Koḍava dagger

peeli

peacock feathers

peeliāt

folk-dance, where the dancers hold peacock feathers

pétékāră

one living in a town/urban area

pinḍa

balls of cooked rice, ritually offered to the spirit of a departed ancestor

polé

ritual pollution

pòlé-thalé

pollution and mourning rites observed after a death

polichi pāt

song in praise of the dead person

pòlé

egret

porambaḍi

excommunicated

porambūt

function held outside the house

pori

puffed rice

pott kaḍanga

small kaḍanga (defensive trench)

potti mara

wooden bhandāra box

pouli

structure where people sit during festivals to watch the proceedings

prasāda

food offering to a deity that is then distributed to devotees

prashné

query/question asked of a priest or astrologer

pūjāri

priest

pūjé

ritual worship

puli neer

kāchambuli, thickened juice of a sour fruit, that is used in curries

pūprashné

query asked of a priest or astrologer

puthari

the harvest festival

puthari kuthi

hollow bamboo container used for rituals during Puthari

rājă

king (here refers to kings of the Haleri dynasty who ruled Koḍagu) 

rākshasă

demon/evil spirit

ratha

chariot

samādhi/ samādhi katté

tomb

sammanda

relationship

sāru

gravy (in Kannaḍa)

sathya pramāṇa

swearing to the truth of a statement; sometimes proven by accomplishing an impossible task 

sēr

volumetric measure for grains, equal to about eight cups

shāle

school (in Kannaḍa)

sōbāne

songs in Kannaḍa sung by women during Gouḍa weddings

shuddha        

purification

shūla

trident

sthāna

stone or mud platform where a spirit-deity is established

sūthaka

ritual pollution (in Kannaḍa)

thaḍamb

processional image of a deity

thakk

language

thakka

okka that has a thakkāmé

thakkă

headman of an okka that has a thakkāmé

thakkāmé

headmanship role, hereditary to the okka

thāli

pendant for a chain

thāli pāt

folk-songs sung during Puthari, with the refrain ‘thāli lellēla”

thaliyathakki bolak/bolcha

lamp lit with wicks dipped in oil, and placed on top of rice grains spread on a plate

thāmané

natal okka of a married woman

thāmané mūḍiya

married women for whom this is the natal okka  

thanḍ

staff

thanthra

mystic rites in Shiva worship 

thanthri

practitioner of mystic rites in Shiva worship

thāthi

pendant/amulet worn as a charm against evil

thāyavvă

respectful form of address for the Kāranachi

thāyi

grandmother/respectful and affectionate suffix attached to the name of a female ancestor or any old lady

theeké uthuva

end of ritual mourning for close relatives of a dead person

theerthōdbhava

gush of water in the sacred Kunḍiké in Thalakāvēri at an auspicious moment every year on Thulā Sankramaṇa day, signifying the re-birth of the river Kāvēri

thēlāt

scorpion dance (a kind of folk-dance)

théré

performance ritual in honour of ancestors or deities

therigé

responsibility for offerings to a temple specified for each okka in a village; responsibility held in turn by each family within the okka; tax

thethi

extended plinth outside the walls of the ainmané   

thiri thōk

match-lock gun loaded with gun-powder and lit with wicks 

thirola

one possessed by the spirit of a deity

thiru āyudha

sacred sword (kaḍathalé)

thombé kaṇṇ

hole about an inch in diameter on the outer wall of an ainmané   

thòta

garden/estate

thōthă

kòla, performance ritual in honour of deities

thott kuñiya

infants in cradles

thoundāri

person responsible for decisions relating to the temple

thūk bolak/bolcha

sacred hanging lamp

thuliya

large cane/wicker cylinder to store grain

thūtëngala

cemetery/cremation ground

ubba

gate consisting of a pair of stone posts and bamboo poles that slide through matching holes in the posts

udi

bag woven with rope made of straw or coir, to hang cooking pots

ukk

steel

umbala mané

kitchen

umbali

land that is lightly assessed, granted by the Rājās for valuable services rendered

ūr

village

ūr dévathé

village deity

ūr guppé

village settlement 

ūr kōl

traditional village folk-dance performed in the mand during Puthari by men holding canes

ūr kūḍuvă

day preceding the wedding day when villagers gather to help with the wedding preparations

ūr thakkă

village headman

ūrambala

village ambala

ūrkāra

villagers

ūrormé

gathering of villagers in the ūr mand for a community feast

vamshāvali

family tree

vasāra

a later extension to the ainmané

vasthra

long veil traditionally worn by Koḍava women, tied back at the nape of the neck.

 

Phrases or sentences

“ār kēri nāḍk”, which means “for the nāḍ of six villages/hamlets”

“Bāri pōka”, which means “Come, let us go”

“Déva ïliva illinji”, which means “the there starts from here”.

“dumba pāl karpavu”, which means “ okka with many milch cows”.

“Ee okka manél ee mannïna dārēngi thindathēngi, ïtti kuthi mannïna ĕdtha pōchēngi, ayingaḍa mūlél ambé thumbé molath pōḍ”, which means “Should anyone come and claim this land or its produce, let their land be covered with weeds and thorns (meaning, let them be ruined)”.

“Ellinji nee banda māyath chūlé…” which means “Where have you come from, O illusory chūlé…”

“Koḍagina Lingarāja oḍeya bēteya uḍupinalli, 1811-20 ālvike” (in Kannaḍa), which means ”King Lingarāja of Koḍagu in hunting attire, ruled 1811-1820”

“kōli muttélē kūva”, which means “chicken that crows even while inside the egg”.

“Kūlradi bāthēngiyu ālradi bapplé”, which means “Even if it (this okka) be in want of rice, it will never want for people”.

“Kundra aḍil mané”, which means “house at the bottom of the hill”.

“Kundra mēkl mané”, which means “house on top of the hill”.

“kutumbada Vamshāvali pusthaka” (in Kannaḍa), which means “the family tree of the okka”.

“Nanga Ulliyaḍallik bendïkalāyith pōpa – chāvaka!”, which means “We go as guests to the Ulliyaḍa house - when we die!”

“nāvu kōl nāḍōnḍa”, which means “of the nāḍ, with a tongue and a stick”

“Oḍeyōne, ningaḍa daya unḍēngi nān elduvi”, which means “O king, if you so please, I will write”.

“ōṇira kaḍel mané”, which means “house at the end of a lane”.

“Paḍinjār moga becha thāyi”, which means “mother who faces the west”.

“pathānḍa kūtk pannand”, which means “uniting the eleventh (spirit of the recently dead person) with the ten (symbolic of the spirits of the ancestors who had died earlier)”.

“ūrk periya kāraṇanga”, which means “earliest settlers in the village”.